For High Availability and Scalability goals, the PostgreSQL database management system provides administrators with built-in physical replication capabilities based on Write Ahead Log (WAL) shipping.
PostgreSQL supports both asynchronous and synchronous streaming replication over the network, as well as asynchronous file-based log shipping (normally used as a fallback option, for example, to store WAL files in an object store). Replicas are usually called standby servers and can also be used for read-only workloads, thanks to the Hot Standby feature.
Cloud Native PostgreSQL supports clusters based on asynchronous and synchronous streaming replication to manage multiple hot standby replicas within the same Kubernetes cluster, with the following specifications:
- One primary, with optional multiple hot standby replicas for High Availability
- Available services for applications:
-rw: applications connect to the only primary instance of the cluster
-ro: applications connect to the only hot standby replicas for read-only-workloads
-r: applications connect to any of the instances for read-only workloads
- Shared-nothing architecture recommended for better resilience of the PostgreSQL cluster:
- PostgreSQL instances should reside on different Kubernetes worker nodes and share only the network
- PostgreSQL instances can reside in different availability zones in the same region
- All nodes of a PostgreSQL cluster should reside in the same region
Please refer to the "Replication" section for more information about how Cloud Native PostgreSQL relies on PostgreSQL replication, including synchronous settings.
Please refer to the "Connection Pooling" section for information about how to take advantage of PgBouncer as a connection pooler, and create an access layer between your applications and the PostgreSQL clusters.
Applications can decide to connect to the PostgreSQL instance elected as current primary by the Kubernetes operator, as depicted in the following diagram:
Applications can use the
-rw suffix service.
In case of temporary or permanent unavailability of the primary, Kubernetes
will move the
-rw service to another instance of the cluster for high availability
Applications must be aware of the limitations that Hot Standby presents and familiar with the way PostgreSQL operates when dealing with these workloads.
Applications can access hot standby replicas through the
-ro service made available
by the operator. This service enables the application to offload read-only queries from the
The following diagram shows the architecture:
Applications can also access any PostgreSQL instance through the
Applications are supposed to work with the services created by Cloud Native PostgreSQL in the same Kubernetes cluster:
Those services are entirely managed by the Kubernetes cluster and implement a form of Virtual IP as described in the "Service" page of the Kubernetes Documentation.
It is highly recommended using those services in your applications, and avoiding connecting directly to a specific PostgreSQL instance, as the latter can change during the cluster lifetime.
You can use these services in your applications through:
- DNS resolution
- environment variables
For the credentials to connect to PostgreSQL, you can use the secrets generated by the operator.
The operator will create another service, named
[cluster name]-any. That
service is used internally to manage PostgreSQL instance discovery.
It's not supposed to be used directly by applications.
You can use the Kubernetes DNS service to point to a given server.
The Kubernetes DNS service is required by the operator.
You can do that by using the name of the service if the application is
deployed in the same namespace as the PostgreSQL cluster.
In case the PostgreSQL cluster resides in a different namespace, you can use the
DNS is the preferred and recommended discovery method.
If you deploy your application in the same namespace that contains the PostgreSQL cluster, you can also use environment variables to connect to the database.
For example, suppose that your PostgreSQL cluster is called
you can use the following environment variables in your applications:
PG_DATABASE_R_SERVICE_HOST: the IP address of the service pointing to all the PostgreSQL instances for read-only workloads
PG_DATABASE_RO_SERVICE_HOST: the IP address of the service pointing to all hot-standby replicas of the cluster
PG_DATABASE_RW_SERVICE_HOST: the IP address of the service pointing to the primary instance of the cluster
The PostgreSQL operator will generate two
basic-auth type secrets for every
PostgreSQL cluster it deploys:
The secrets contain the username, password, and a working
respectively for the
postgres user and the owner of the database.
-app credentials are the ones that should be used by applications
connecting to the PostgreSQL cluster.
-superuser ones are supposed to be used only for administrative purposes.
Cloud Native PostgreSQL supports deploying PostgreSQL across multiple Kubernetes clusters through a feature called Replica Cluster, which is described in this section.
In a distributed PostgreSQL cluster there can only be a single PostgreSQL instance acting as a primary at all times. This means that applications can only write inside a single Kubernetes cluster, at any time.
If you are interested in a PostgreSQL architecture where all instances accept writes, please take a look at BDR (Bi-Directional Replication) by EDB. For Kubernetes, BDR will have its own Operator, expected late in 2021.
However, for business continuity objectives it is fundamental to:
- reduce global recovery point objectives (RPO) by storing PostgreSQL backup data in multiple locations, regions and possibly using different providers (Disaster Recovery)
- reduce global recovery time objectives (RTO) by taking advantage of PostgreSQL replication beyond the primary Kubernetes cluster (High Availability)
In order to address the above concerns, Cloud Native PostgreSQL introduces the concept of a PostgreSQL Replica Cluster. Replica clusters are the Cloud Native PostgreSQL way to enable multi-cluster deployments in private, public, hybrid, and multi-cloud contexts.
A replica cluster is a separate
- having either
bootstrapoption from a defined external source cluster
- having the
replica.enabledoption set to
- replicating from a defined external cluster identified by
replica.source, normally located outside the Kubernetes cluster
- replaying WAL information received from the recovery object store
restore_commandparameter), or via streaming replication (using PostgreSQL's
primary_conninfoparameter), or any of the two (in case both the
connectionParametersare defined in the external cluster)
- accepting only read connections, as supported by PostgreSQL's Hot Standby
Please refer to the "Bootstrap" section for more information
about cloning a PostgreSQL cluster from another one (defined in the
The diagram below depicts a PostgreSQL cluster spanning over two different Kubernetes clusters, where the primary cluster is in the first Kubernetes cluster and the replica cluster is in the second. The second Kubernetes cluster acts as the company's disaster recovery cluster, ready to be activated in case of disaster and unavailability of the first one.
A replica cluster can have the same architecture of the primary cluster. In place of the primary instance, a replica cluster has a designated primary instance, which is a standby server with an arbitrary number of cascading standby servers in streaming replication (symmetric architecture).
The designated primary can be promoted at any time, making the replica cluster a primary cluster capable of accepting write connections.
Cloud Native PostgreSQL does not perform any cross-cluster switchover or failover at the moment. Such operation must be performed manually or delegated to a multi-cluster/federated cluster aware authority. Each PostgreSQL cluster is independent from any other.
The designated primary in the above example is fed via WAL streaming
primary_conninfo), with fallback option for file-based WAL shipping through
Cloud Native PostgreSQL allows you to define multiple replica clusters. You can also define replica clusters with a lower number of replicas, and then increase this number when the cluster is promoted to primary.